March 17, 2011 11:02

「日本政府の見解と世界各国の見解、的確なものを判断せよ」

日本は原発から20キロまでを避難指示、
30キロまでを屋内待機と言っているが、
アメリカ側の警戒では、
80キロ(50マイル)までは避難をする様に
勧告を出している。

イギリス政府は16日(昨日)時点で、
東京にいるイギリス国民に対して、
”地域を出る事を考慮する様に”
警告を出している。

以下、WSJより抜粋;

ASIA NEWSMARCH 16, 2011, 9:57 P.M. ET
U.S. Sounds Alarm on Radiation

TOKYO—Fear about radiation dangers posed by Japan's nuclear crisis spiked as the U.S. instructed its troops and citizens to stay at least 50 miles away from the crippled reactors.

The U.S. "no-go" zone is far wider than the buffer established by the Japanese government itself. The top U.S. nuclear regulator, Gregory Jaczko, on Wednesday called radiation levels at one of the units at the plant "extremely high," adding that, "for a comparable situation in the United States we would recommend an evacuation for a much larger radius than is currently being provided in Japan."

Until its abrupt reversal, the U.S. had agreed with Japanese officials that a 12-mile evacuation zone was adequate. The change came after the NRC ran computer-modeling exercises using "the best available information we have" about the damaged reactors along with accumulated knowledge about how systems inside nuclear plants perform under "severe accident conditions," a spokesman with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission said.

Separately on Wednesday, the U.K. government told its citizens in Tokyo, a full 150 miles from the disaster, to "consider leaving the area" due to increasing infrastructure problems. And the European Union's energy chief, Guenther Oettinger, declared the Fukushima Daiichi site "effectively out of control." A spokeswoman for Mr. Oettinger later said the commissioner's remarks reflected his own personal views, and weren't based on privileged information.


Japan's nuclear crisis deepened as a fresh fire broke out in a quake-ravaged nuclear complex and expats fled Tokyo over warnings of radiation leaks. WSJ's Mariko Sanchanta and Yumiko Ono discuss.

Stock markets staged large swings amid the warnings and uncertainty, reflecting the depth of anxiety world-wide. "Japan trumps everything for everyone right now," said Phil Orlando, chief equity strategist at Federated Investors. "Every investment decision is made through the prism of what is going on in Japan." The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell a bit more than 2% to 11613.

Japan's government tried to move decisively to seize control of the deepening nuclear crisis by ordering a risky new effort to douse radioactive material with cooling water. Economics Minister Banri Kaieda ordered the plant's operator, Tokyo Electric Power Co., or Tepco, to drench with water a pool containing nuclear-waste material. At one point that pool saw its water level drop to zero.

"The minister considered the situation to be dangerous and judged there was an imminent necessity to issue the order," said a spokesman for the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, which is part of Mr. Kaieda's purview. "After learning that Tepco was not injecting cooling water, he judged it to be very dangerous."

On Wednesday, 20 government officials moved into Tepco's Tokyo offices, according to a company official.

Meanwhile, Tepco itself raced to complete construction of an emergency power supply for the crippled plant in a last-ditch effort to resume pumping of coolant onto dangerously overheated radioactive material throughout the site. Those efforts, along with details from the early moments of the crisis, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power complex, highlight new questions about the design and safety record of the plant, which is Japan's oldest.

Common to all nuclear plants is this fundamental design problem: Engineers try to make the equipment impervious to one threat, but that may make it vulnerable to another.

In this case, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear complex's back-up diesel-powered generators, were built below ground level. This bunker-like positioning would protect the generators from an air strike, cyclone or typhoon—but made them more vulnerable to an earthquake-driven tsunami.

When last week's giant waves struck, they immobilized the generators despite being designed to protect against water. The tsunami also apparently washed away the generators' fuel tanks, which were above ground, as well as important electrical switching equipment for the complex.

"The earthquake and tsunami we had last week both exceeded our engineering assumptions by a long shot," said Tetsuo Ito, head of Kinki University's Atomic Energy Research Institute, near Osaka. "The nuclear industry around the world probably will have to review how we set those assumptions in designing a nuclear power plant."

Another area of scrutiny is the proximity of the plant's six reactors to one another. Damage to one reactor contributed to damage to another, and their proximity hindered a recovery.

This arrangement can be found at other plants, because it can make it easier to move equipment around and helps to keep a smaller work force, said Mr. Ito. But now it looks like a "bad idea," he said. "We need to strike a better balance of operational efficiency and safety."

Terry Pickens, director of nuclear regulatory policy at Xcel Energy Inc. of the U.S., said there is no cookie-cutter reactor of the vintage of the Fukushima units because utilities in those days hired their own engineering firms and architects, and customized the designs of the plants. At Xcel's Monticello plant in Minnesota, diesel generators are kept as far apart as possible so that "a natural phenomenon isn't likely to take both of them out," Mr. Pickens said.

The Japanese plant lost power during Friday's earthquake. The three active reactors shut off automatically as designed, but a lack of electricity left workers unable to operate their cooling systems, leading to overheating. Tepco says the tsunami paralyzed all but one backup generator.

Journal CommunityDISCUSS
“I wouldn't bet against the Japanese, folks. They are human and flawed like the rest of us but if I had to pick a group to tackle a knotty problem like this one, it would be them. They will stabilize that plant. ”
—Stephen Fitzgerald
In a weekend briefing, Tepco Managing Director Akio Komori cited the elevation of the backup generators as one potential issue. A Tepco spokesman confirmed the remarks, adding that a full probe will have to wait while workers try to bring the reactors under control.

A spokesman for Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, the nation's nuclear-power regulator, said Fukushima Daiichi's emergency-generator design is "fairly prevalent" at other Japanese plants. The spokesman, Shigekatsu Ohmukai, disputed that the elevation of the generators was a problem. The agency, he said, had had concluded that the plant could withstand a certain size of tsunami but "obviously the tsunami caused by Friday's earthquake exceeded our assumptions. That's the problem."

In the U.S., where there are 23 similar reactors operated by 11 different companies, backup generators typically are housed in bunker-like buildings at ground level. They are designed with watertight fittings that are intended to keep out water from floods or hurricanes.

General Electric Co. designed three of the six reactors for Tepco at the Daiichi complex but it didn't determine the layout of every piece of equipment, a company spokesman said. Some of that was done by architects and engineers hired by Tepco. He added that the main problem was the larger-then-expected tsunami, not the generator placement.

The Daiichi plant was central to a falsified-records scandal a decade ago that led Tepco to briefly shut down all its plants and led to the departure of a number of senior executives. Nuclear experts say that led to a number of disclosures of previously unreported problems at the plant.

—Miho Inada, Andrew Morse, Mitsuru Obe Tennille Tracy, Jared Favole and Nathan Hodge contributed to this article.


下記はCNN日本サイトより抜粋;

米政府、福島原発80キロ圏内からの避難を米国民に勧告 2011.03.17 Thu posted at: 09:52 JST

ワシントン(CNN) 米政府は16日午後、福島原子力発電所の50マイル(約80キロ)圏内にいる米国民に対し、避難を勧告した。

日本政府は福島第一原発から半径20キロ圏内を避難、30キロ圏内を屋内退避の対象としている。米国もこれまでは自国民に対して同じ指示を出していたが、11日の地震発生以来、日本政府と異なる判断を示した。

これについてジェイ・カーニー米大統領報道官はワシントンで記者団に対し、「日本政府が同国の情報をもとに出している勧告は、同じ事態が米国で起きた場合にわれわれが出すであろう勧告とは異なる」「どの圏内まで避難させるかについての基準が日本とわが国とでは違う」と説明した。

米国務省のマーク・トナー報道官も、米国は日本の当局を信頼しているとしながらも、米国の専門家の見解に基づいて新たな情報を出すことにしたと説明。「日本の当局が国民に説明していることについて、一切の判断をさしはさむものではない」としたうえで、「もしわが国で同様の事態が起きた場合、国民に出すであろう勧告を根拠とした。その推定と判断に基づき、やむを得ず日本にいる米国民に対して勧告を出した」としている。

米国防総省報道官によれば、米軍はこれより数日前に、事故が起きた原発から50マイル圏外に兵士らを退避させている。国務省はその理由について説明していないが、日本時間の17日早朝までは、米国民に新たな勧告を出す必要性を感じなかったと述べた。

ジョン・ルース駐日米大使も直前まで、米国と日本の判断は完全に一致していると述べていた。




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